Unlike other countries, it is not illegal to form a yakuza syndicate or join one. This unique institutional context provides an opportunity to directly study the size of the yakuza. This project studies the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances, which indirectly crack downs on the yakuza by prohibiting third parties---non-yakuza individuals---from providing any benefit to the yakuza. The project offers evidence for the (#1 paper) intended and (#2 paper) unintended consequences of the YEOs.

  • The previous version of the project received Penn State Criminology Student Paper Competition, 1st place.
  • Third-Party Policing Approaches against Organized Crime: an Evaluation of the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances (joint with Tetsuya Hoshino). The Journal of Quantitative Criminology. (Publisher Version) (Pre-Print Version)
  • Fig3

  • "Enforcement against Organized Crime Fosters Illegal Markets: Evidence from the Yakuza." (joint with Tetsuya Hoshino). Under Review. ( Working Paper)